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Testis Treatment


Testes are two in number, again present only in males. They are organs of reproduction of males. They are contained in external sacs called scrotum, hanging outside the body, just below the penis!

Nature has specific reasons for the testes to be present outside the body. Testes have two vital functions. One is to produce male hormones, and the second is to produce sperms.

For the testes to form healthy sperms, the testes need to be at a temperature lower than body core temperature. That is why the nature has pushed testes out of the body in scrotum.

Testes may be affected by infection, torsion, trauma, tumor, varicocele, and congenital testicular failure.



Testes are paired organs of male reproduction. They are present in scrotal sacs hanging outside the body. The testes are pushed out of the body during intrauterine development as they need to be in colder environment for optimum functioning.

There are two major functions of testes. One, is production of sperms, which help in reproduction, and the other is production of male hormones, responsible for development of male secondary sexual characters. Both these functions are subserved by two different tissues within the testes. The spermatogenesis needs the juxtascrotal temperature to be much colder than the core body temperature. This is the physiological reason, why the nature pushes both testes out of the body through inguinal canals into specially developed scrotal sacs.

In patients, where the testes do not descend into the scrotum by birth, require special addressing by specialist like me. Most of them will merit corrective surgery by 1 year of age, to prevent thermal injury to thermolabile tissue.

Both the testes are covered by muscular sacs called scrotum. The vessels and nerves and lymphatics of the testes pass through inguinal canals in the groins to reach testes, through internal rings in the parietal wall. The internal ring closes once the testes descend into the scrotum. In occasional patients, the internal ring does not close, resulting into inguinal hernias.

Diseases of Testes


Congenital Atrophy, where the testes just do not develop due to genetic abnormalities

Only Spermatogenetic tissue is absent, resulting in absence of sperms with normal male hormonal production

Dilatation of veins of one or both testes, called varicoceles, which cause heating of testes, resulting in poor sperm production. This may require surgical correction.

The testis may undergo sudden turning around its vascular pedicle, causing sudden cessation of its blood supply. This condition is called testicular torsion. It is an acute surgical emergency, requiring urgent surgical correction. If not done within a short time, it may result in testicular infarction and death.

Testicular tissues may develop malignant transformation. Tumors arising from spermatogenic tissue are called Germ Cell Tumors, and those arising from other tissues are called Non Germ Cell Tumors. The clinical signs and symptoms, and the treatment of both types of tumors are different.

The fasciomuscular layers surrounding the testes, may develop fluid collection within the scrotal sacs, called hydroceles.

If there is a bleed within, they may turn into hematoceles. The commonest cause of this is some form of injury to testis or postoperatively.

If they get infected, they may turn into pyoceles. All these conditions require specialist’s attention and most will require surgical treatment.

Our Urological Services


We have many years combined experience in the diagnosis and treatment of prostate disease and we offer a range of services to our patients including our 1-stop clinics which include:

  • Blood substances tests
  • Urine examination
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

Assessments are carried out in our One-stop Clinic for all conditions of the prostate gland.

To discuss a specific urological issue or to book an appointment, please contact us or call us on
022 23514301 OR

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